All measurement procedures involve error . However, it is the amount/degree of error that indicates how reliable a measurement is. When the amount of error is low , the reliability of the measurement is high . Conversely, when the amount of error is large , the reliability of the measurement is low . However, there are solutions to help improve measurement procedures that may be prone to large error components . For example, multiple measurements can be taken instead of a single measurement, with the scores from the multiple measurements being averaged. This will increase the consistency/stability of the measurement procedure.
13. Include a title on your proposal. I'm amazed at how often the title is left for the end of the student's writing and then somehow forgotten when the proposal is prepared for the committee. A good proposal has a good title and it is the first thing to help the reader begin to understand the nature of your work. Use it wisely! Work on your title early in the process and revisit it often. It's easy for a reader to identify those proposals where the title has been focused upon by the student. Preparing a good title means:
Data mining is another area that has tremendous applications for e-commerce. Because a huge amount of information is made available through digital systems, and this information can be collated from various sources to glean more information than the individual would expect, customer privacy issues have come to the fore. Legislation such as the Data Protection Act 1998 and the Freedom of Information Act 2000 are aimed at protecting the interests of the lay citizen. Technology such as RFID tagging has further enabled data mining in an unprecedented scale. Some e-commerce dissertation topics in this area are: